In the early 1980s, the Soviet Union began developing its most powerful anti-satellite weapon yet, known as the Naryad.Also a co-orbital ASAT, the Naryad was designed to reach altitudes as high as 40,000 km, and could contain multiple individual warheads in a single launch, posing a threat to satellites in GEO.The S-300 and S-400 missiles are surface-to-air missiles that are capable of “near space” This view of a unified air, missile, and space defense is consistent with the organizational changes implemented by the Russian government in 20.
On several occasions the country has maneuvered space objects in LEO and GEO that were initially identified (incorrectly) as debris in the U. While modern-day Russian RPO activities are much different than the actual destruction of target satellites in the first IS program, Russia’s current activities indicate that it is reviving its efforts in co-orbital counterspace technology development.Two of the Soviet Union’s verified ASAT weapon systems used co-orbital methods.The first program, Istrebitel Sputnikov (IS), meaning “satellite destroyer” in Russian, completed 20 tests from 1963 to 1982, and successfully destroyed several targeted satellites in orbit.Although legacy Soviet space technology continues to provide an advantage for Russia today, the country has not continued to make advances in space at the same rate as it did during the Cold War. Space Shuttle program in 2011, the Soyuz launch system has been the only vehicle transporting astronauts to and from the International Space Station (ISS).Many of Russia’s satellite constellations deteriorated in the 1990s and 2000s due to a declining budget and crumbling economy; however, the country has maintained its global prominence in human spaceflight. Russia was a founding partner of the ISS and is the second largest contributor to its construction and operation.